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ALGONKİN - YUROK DİLLERİ ALGIC
LANGUAGES

by
Ümüt Çınar

Na - Dene dili Navahocadan sonra Kuzey Amerika'da konuşanı en fazla olan ikinci (Kri) ve üçüncü (Oçipva) diller bu grupta yer alır.

Manitu / Manitou (< manidoo "spirit"), totem (< doodem "clan"), opossum (< aposoum "white beast"), rakun / raccoon, caribou, mokasen / moccasin, tomahawk, Eskimo, Mississippi (< mizizibi "large water"), Miami, Illinois, Massachusetts, Ottawa, Quebec, Atabask (Athabasca) gölü gibi adlar Algonkin dillerinden geçme alıntılardır..

Algonkin-Yurok dilleri haritası
< http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Algic_langs.png

1. Algonkin - Yurok dilleri
1.1. Viyotça
1.2. Yurokça
1.3. Algonkin dilleri
1.3.1. Ova Algonkin dilleri
1.3.1.1. Karaayakça
1.3.1.2. Şayence
1.3.1.3. Arapahoca
1.3.1.4. Atsinaca
1.3.1.5. Güney Arapahocası
1.3.2. Merkezi Algonkin dilleri
1.3.2.1. Kri - İnnu dilleri
1.3.2.1.1. Ova Kricesi
1.3.2.1.1.1. Maskvaçis Kricesi
1.3.2.1.2. Orman Kricesi
1.3.2.1.3. Bataklık Kricesi
1.3.2.1.4. İlili Kricesi
1.3.2.1.5. Atikamekçe
1.3.2.1.6. Kuzey Doğu Kricesi
1.3.2.1.7. Güney Doğu Kricesi
1.3.2.1.8. Naskapice
1.3.2.1.4. İnnuca
1.3.2.2. Menominice
1.3.2.3. Oçipva dilleri
1.3.2.3.1.
1.3.2.3.2.
1.3.2.3.3.
1.3.2.3.4.
1.3.2.3.5.
1.3.2.3.6.
1.3.2.3.7.
1.3.2.3.8.
1.3.2.3.9.

1. Algic languages
1.1. Wiyot
1.2. Yurok
1.3. Algonquian languages
1.3.1. Plains Algonquian languages
1.3.1.1. Blackfoot
1.3.1.2. Cheyenne
1.3.1.3. Arapaho (Northern Arapaho)
1.3.1.4. Atsina (Gros Ventre)
1.3.1.5. Southern Arapaho (Nawathinehena)
1.3.2. Central Algonquian languages
1.3.2.1. Cree - Innu languages
1.3.2.1.1. Plains Cree
1.3.2.1.1.1. Maskwacis Cree
1.3.2.1.2. Woods Cree, Woodland Cree
1.3.2.1.3. Swampy Cree
1.3.2.1.4. Moose Cree
1.3.2.1.5. Atikamekw
1.3.2.1.6. Northern East Cree
1.3.2.1.7. Southern East Cree
1.3.2.1.8. Naskapi
1.3.2.1.4. Innu (Montagnais)
1.3.2.2. Menomini
1.3.2.3. Ojibwayan languages
1.3.2.3.1.
1.3.2.3.2.
1.3.2.3.3.
1.3.2.3.4.
1.3.2.3.5.
1.3.2.3.6.
1.3.2.3.7.
1.3.2.3.8.
1.3.2.3.9.



aql Algonkin - Yurok Dilleri
ve Halkları
Algic or Algonquian (Algonkian) - Ritwan Languages
and Peoples

1. & 2.   RITWAN LANGUAGES, Yurok - Wiyot sub-branch, California Algic languages
1.  

VİYOT DİLLERİ

WIYOT LANGUAGES
1.1. wiy Viyotça
Soulátluk'

Wiyot, Weott, Wishosk
Kaliforniya'da Humboldt Bay'da yaşarlar. Son konuşanı Della Prince'in 1962 yılında ölmesiyle dil de yok olmuştur.
http://www.wiyot.com/language
2.   YUROK DİLLERİ YUROK LANGUAGES
2.1. yur Yurokça Yurok
Kuzeybatı Kaliforniya'da Del Norte County ve Humboldt County'de yaşarlar. Konuşanı 12 kişidir.
http://linguistics.berkeley.edu/~yurok/index.php
3. alg ALGONKİN DİLLERİ ALGONQUIAN (Algonkian, Algonkin) LANGUAGES, Algonkin - Lenape
3.1.   OVA ALGONKİN DİLLERİ PLAINS ALGONQUIAN LANGUAGES
3.1.1. bla Karaayakça Blackfoot, Blackfeet (pl)
3.1.1.1.   Kainai, Kainawa
Blood
Kanada'da
3.1.1.2.   Aamsskáápipikani
South Piikani, Southern Peigan, Pikuni, Amskapi Pikuni
Montana'da
3.1.1.3.   Aapátohsipikani   North Piikani, Northern Peigan
Kanada'da
3.1.1.4.   Siksiká
Blackfoot proper
Kanada'da
3.1.2. chy Şayence
Tsétsêhéstaestse (sg)
Tsétsêhéstâhese (pl)
Tsêhésenêstsestôtse (dil)

Cheyenne, Cheyenne Nation
3.1.2.1.   Kuzey Şayenleri
Notameohmésêhese, Ohmésêhese
Tsétsêhéstaestse (sg)
Tsétsêhéstâhese (pl)
Tsêhésenêstsestôtse (dil)
Northern Cheyenne, Tsitsistas (pl) Tsisinstsistots (dil)
Günümüzde, güneydoğu Montana'da Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation adlı toplama alanında yaşarlar.
3.1.2.2.   Güney Şayenleri
Heévâhetaneo'o,
Só'taeo'o / Só'taa'e
Southern Cheyenne, Sutai or Sutaio
Günümüzde, batı Oklahoma'da Güney Arapahoları ile birlikte Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes adı altında idari birlik oluştururlar.
http://www.c-a-tribes.org/
3.1.3.   Arapaho dilleri Arapahoan languages, Arapaho - Atsina, Arapaho - Atsina - Nawathinehena
3.1.3.1.   Arapaho - Atsina dilleri Arapaho - Atsina, Arapaho - Gros Ventre
3.1.3.1.1. arp Arapahoca ya da Kuzey Arapahocası ve Arapahoları
Hinono'ei (sg)
Hinono'eino' (pl)
Hinóno'eitíít (dil)
Bo'oociinen (sg) / Bo'oociinenno' (pl) (Güneylilere göre)
Arapaho, Northern Arapaho, Arapahoe, Arrapahoe, Arapaho proper, Inuna-Ina
Günümüzde, merkezî Wyoming'de Wind River Reservation adlı toplama alanında Şoşonlarla birlikte yaşarlar.
http://www.colorado.edu/csilw/newarapproj2.htm
3.1.3.1.1.1.  


Besawunena, Staetan band

3.1.3.1.2. ats Atsinaca
A'ani
Gros Ventre, Atsina, Ananin, Ahahnelin, Ahe
3.1.3.2. nwa Güney Arapahocası ve Arapahoları
Noowunen (sg) / Noowunenno' (pl) (Kuzeylilere göre)
Southern Arapaho, Nawathinehena
Batı Oklahoma'da Güney Şayenleri ile birlikte Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes adı altında idari birlik oluştururlar.
http://www.c-a-tribes.org/

3.2.   MERKEZİ ALGONKİN DİLLERİ CENTRAL ALGONQUIAN LANGUAGES
3.2.1.   Kri - İnnu dilleri Cree - Innu languages, Cree - Montagnais, Cree - Montagnais - Naskapi
3.2.1.1.   Kri dilleri Cree languages
3.2.1.1.1.   Batı Kri dilleri
Western Cree
3.2.1.1.1.1. crk
(eski: crp)
Ova Kricesi Plains Cree, “y” dialect
3.2.1.1.1.1.1.   Nēhiyawēwin ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ
Paskwâw Nêhiyawêwin
Paskwâwinîmowin ᐸᐢᑳᐧᐃᐧᓃᒧᐃᐧᐣ
Southern Plains Cree, Prairie/Plains Cree
3.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.   Saskatchewan Plains Cree
3.2.1.1.1.1.1.2.   Maskvaçis Kricesi
ᒪᐢᑿᒋᐢ ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ
Maskwacis Plains Cree, Maskwacis Cree
http://maskwaciscree.com/
The Four Bands :
*Samson Cree Nation - http://www.samsoncree.com
*Ermineskin Cree Nation - http://www.creegallery.com
*Louis Bull Tribe - http://www.louisbulltribe.ca
*Montana Cree Nation - http://www.montanafirstnation.com
3.2.1.1.1.1.2.   Nēhiyawēmowin ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᒧᐏᐣ
Sakâw Nêhiyawêwin
Northern Plains Cree, Bush Cree
3.2.1.1.1.2. cwd Orman Kricesi
Nīhithawīwin ᓀᐦᐃᖬᐍᐏᐣ
.Woodlands Cree, Woods Cree, Northern Cree, “th” dialect
3.2.1.1.1.2.1.   Asinīskāwiyiniwak Rocky Cree
3.2.1.1.1.2.2.   Sakāwithiniwak Woods Cree
3.2.1.1.2.   Merkezî Krice Central Cree, York cree, West Shore Cree, West Main Cree
3.2.1.1.2.1. csw Bataklık Kricesi
Maškēkowak / nēhinawak
Nēhinawēwin ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ

Swampy Cree, “n” dialect
3.2.1.1.2.1.1.   ᐃᓂᓃᒧᐏᐣ (Ininīmowin) Western Swampy Cree, West Swampy Cree
3.2.1.1.2.1.2.   ᐃᓂᓂᐎ ᐃᔑᑭᔗᐎᐣ (Ininiwi-Išikišwēwin) Eastern Swampy Cree, East Swampy Cree, Swampy Cree
3.2.1.1.2.2. crm İlili Kricesi
Mōsonī / ililī
ᐃᓕᓖᒧᐎᓐ (Ililīmowin)
Moose Cree, “l” dialect
:
Moose Cree First Nation
3.2.1.1.3. atj Atikamekçe
Nehiraw
Nehirâmowin
Atikamekw, Atikamekw Cree, Atikamek, “r” dialect
:
Obedjiwan, Manawan, Wemontaci
3.2.1.2.   İnnu - Doğu Kri dilleri Montagnais - Naskapi
3.2.1.2.1.   Doğu Kri dilleri East Cree, James Bay Cree
3.2.1.2.1.1. crl Kuzey Doğu Kricesi
ᐄᔨᔫ ᐊᔨᒨᓐ (Īyiyū Ayimūn)
Northern East Cree, Northern James Bay Cree, Coastal East Cree, Coastal Eastern Cree, East Coastal Cree, Eastern Coastal Cree, Coastal Cree
: Cree Nation of Chisasibi, Cree Nation of Wemindji, Cree Nation of Whapmagoostui, Eastmain First Nation (also Southern James Bay Cree)
3.2.1.2.1.1.1.   ᐃᔨᔨᐅᔨᒧᐧᐃᓐ James Bay Cree (sensu stricto)
:
Wemindji, Waskaganish, Eastmain, Chisasibi
3.2.1.2.1.1.2.   ᐃᔨᔨᐅᔨᒧᐧᐃᓐ Great Whale Cree
:
Whapmagoostui
3.2.1.2.1.2. crj
(eski: cre)
Güney Doğu Kricesi
ᐄᓅ ᐊᔨᒨᓐ (Īnū Ayimūn)

ᐄᓅᐊᔨᒧᐧᐃᓐ
Southern East Cree, Southern James Bay Cree, Inland East Cree, Inland Eastern Cree, East Inland Cree, Eastern Inland Cree, Inland Cree, Lac Mistassini Cree
: Eastmain First Nation (also Northern James Bay Cree), Cree Nation of Mistissini, Cree Nation of Nemaska, Oujé-Bougoumou First Nation, The Crees of the Waskaganish First Nation, Waswanipi Cree First Nation
3.2.1.2.2.   İnnu - Naskapi dilleri Montagnais - Naskapi, Naskapi - Montagnais, Innu
3.2.1.2.2.1. nsk Naskapice
ᓇᔅᑲᐱ naskapi (ırk)
ᐃᔪᐤ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ iyow iyimoon (dil)

Naskapi, Nascapi, Naskapee, Nascapee, Naskapi Innu
3.2.1.2.2.1.1.   Waskahikan Innu (ᐃᔪᐤ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ) Western Naskapi, Fort Chimo Naskapi
:
Kawawachikamach
3.2.1.2.2.1.2.   Mushuau Innu, Mushuau-aimun Eastern Naskapi, Davis Inlet Naskapi, Barren Ground Naskapi, Barren Ground Innu, Innu
:
Natuashish
3.2.1.2.2.2. moe İnnuca Montagnais, Innu, Nehirawewin
3.2.1.2.2.2.1.   Batı İnnucası
Nehilawewin (Piyekwâkamî d.)
Leluwewn (Betsiamites dialect)
Western Montagnais
3.2.1.2.2.2.1.1.   Pointe Bleue dialect (Nehlueun) : Mashteuiatsh
3.2.1.2.2.2.1.2.   Betsiamites dialect (Ilnu Aimun, Leluwewn) : Betsiamites, Essipit
3.2.1.2.2.2.2.   Doğu İnnucası
Innu-aimûn
Eastern Montagnais
3.2.1.2.2.2.2.1.   Uashau Innu (Innu Aimun) : Uashat-Maliotenam, Matimekosh, Sheshatshiu
3.2.1.2.2.2.2.2.   Lower North Shore (Innu Aiamûn) : Mingan, Natashquan, Pakua-Shipi, La Romaine
3.2.2. mez Menominice
Omāēqnomenew, Mamāceqtaw
Menomini, Menominee
3.2.3.     Eastern Great Lakes, Core Central
3.2.3.1.   Oçipva - Potavatomi dilleri
Anishinaabemowin ᐊᓂᔑᓈᐯᒧᐎᓐ (dil)
Ojibwe - Potawatomi, Ojibwa - Potawatomi - Ottawa, Ojibwayan languages, Ojibwan, Anishinaabe language or Anishinaabemowin
3.2.3.1.1. oji Oçipva dilleri
Anishinaabemowin ᐊᓂᔑᓈᐯᒧᐎᓐ (dil)
Ojibwayan languages, Ojibwan languages, Ojibwa (macrolanguage), Ojibwe, Ojibway, Chippewa, Proto-Ojibwa
3.2.3.1.1.1.    
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
3.2.3.1.2. pot   Potawatomi
3.2.3.2.     Fox - Sauk - Kickapoo or Mesquakie - Sauk - Kickapoo
3.2.3.3.    
     
     


Eski Sınıflandırma (Sapir 1929)

Algonquian - Wakashan (Algonkin - Wakashan, Algonkian - Mosan, Almosan) is a hypothetical language phylum composed of several established language families that was proposed by Edward Sapir in 1929 in the Encyclopædia Britannica.

I. Algic (Algonkin - Ritwan, Algonkian - Ritwan)


A. Algonquian (Algonkin)
B. Beothuk
C. Wiyot-Yurok (Ritwan)

II. Kutenai (Kootenay; a language isolate)

III. Mosan (Wakashan-Salish)

A. Wakashan (Kwakiutl - Nootka)
B. Chimakuan
C. Salishan


http://www.ncidc.org/bright/almanac_00-4-8.doc


Phylum: Macro-Algonkian (Macro-Algonquian, Algonquian - Gulf)

Branch 1: Algic, with three families: Yurok, Wiyot, Algonkian

Branch 2: Gulf, including the following families (all isolates): Natchez, Atakapa, Chitimacha, Tunica, Tonkawa, Muskogean


Greenberg 1987

I. Eskimo-Aleut

II. Na-Dene (= Asya Kızılderili dilleri)
a. Continental Nadene groups (like Sapir)
b. Haida

III. Amerind (= Amerika Kızılderili dilleri)
1. Almosan-Kerosiouan
a. Almosan (Sapir's Algonkin-Wakashan)
b. Caddo
c. Iroquoian
d. Siouan-Yuchi
e. Keresan

2. Penutian
a. Penutian (like Sapir)
b. Gulf
c. Yukian
d. Zuni
e. Maya
f. Totonac

3. Hokan
a. Hokan-Coahuiltecan (like Sapir)
b. Guaicura
c. Maratino
d. Quinigua
e. Jicaque (in Honduras)
f. Yurumanguí (in Columbia)

4. Central Amerind
a. Kiowa-Tanoan
b. Uto-Aztecan
c. Otomanguean
d. Central American (other groups except Tlapanecan (=Hokan))

5. Chibcha-Paezan
a. Timucua
b. Central American and northern South American groups

6 - 11 Subgroups in South America




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